Les principaux meubles produits dans le style Louis-Philippe sont : Les sièges ont une apparence plutôt massive. Le style Louis-Philippe est un style de mobilier français en vogue sous le règne de Louis-Philippe (1830-1848) qui influence aussi l'architecture. The Louis Philippe commode was solid and heavy, and had a marble top and a front covered with a thin layer of light wood, often with an inlay of designs of dark wood, usually rosewood or mahogany, in patterns of oak leaves, palmettes, or other floral or vegetal decoration. He also made other neoclassical works that often approached eroticism and romanticism. Meubles emblématiques du style Louis-Philippe, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Style_Louis-Philippe&oldid=147572705, Catégorie Commons avec lien local identique sur Wikidata, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Thousands of copies were sold by Paris publishers. The best hall in the city was that of the Paris Conservatory on rue Bergére, which had excellent acoustics and could seat a thousand persons. À la fois simple et sophistiqué, le style contemporain a la particularité d'être intemporel. Les consoles d'appui ont souvent un dessus en marbre, des pieds sinueux et massifs terminés par des volutes et un socle massif lui aussi. It was soon lined with restaurants, cafes-chantants. Unfortunately, all the interiors were burned in 1871 by the Paris Commune. Indulging to the needs of the discerning gentleman, Louis Philippe delivers nothing short of sharp style and finesse. Berlioz complained in the Journal des Debats that there were six operas by Donizetti in Paris playing in one year. The style of architecture and design under King Louis Philippe I (1830–1848) was a more eclectic development of French neoclassicism, incorporating elements of neo-Gothic and other styles. , Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix (1830), the Louvre, Portrait of Louis-François Bertin, by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1832), the Louvre, The Martyrdom of Saint-Symphorien by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1834), The Fanatics of Tangier by Eugène Delacroix (1838), Minneapolis Institute of Art, Odalisque and Slave by Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (1843), Fogg Art Museum, The two most important painters of the Louis Philippe period, Eugène Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were completely opposite in style, philosophy and temperament; Delacroix, the champion of romanticism, painted his celebrated Liberty Leading the People in 1830, shortly after the 1830 revolution that brought Louis Philippe to power, personifying the figure of Liberté as a bare-breasted classical goddess in the baroque style. Keeping in mind the globe-trotting businessman, Louis Philippe’s sub brand LP caters to men with panache and attitude. Les tables sont souvent de formes rondes ou ovales. Of the French composers during the period Hector Berlioz was the most prominent. In 1837, the King of the Viennese waltz, Johann Strauss I, came in person to in Paris, competing with the French waltz king, Philippe Musard. Art galleries, easily sell your work online. The finished painting borrowed from the old masters, the classicists, and the romantics, crowding dozens of figures into a single canvas depicting Roman decadence.  Dans un second temps, le réalisme connaît un essor important. Le second est le lit à dossiers droits. Chevet style Louis philippe en merisier patiné blanc à L'isle sur Sorgue - Spécialiste de la peinture sur meubles anciens et du meuble brut, peint ou patiné, nous réalisons vos meubles, décapage, peinture sur bois, vernissage de meubles et de cuisines, patine, décoration bois afin de répondre à … , Cabinet for Tuileries Palace by Georges-Alphonse Jacob-Desmalter (1834), Louis Philippe gueridon, or pedestal, table. The ballet had been an integral part of the Paris Opera since the time of Louis XIV the 17th century. Richard Wagner came to Paris in 1839, hoping to present his works on the Paris opera stages, with no success. La méridienne est toujours très populaire. In painting, neoclassicism and romanticism contended to become the dominant style. Although Louis XVIII refused to grant Louis-Philippe the style of royal highness (later allowed to him by Charles X), the king did grant Louis-Philippe the dignities traditionally held by the head of his family. C'est un style de bourgeois affairés et cossus, partagés entre le souci de leur confort et le désir de se donner des lettres de noblesse. On peut noter cependant que la traverse inférieure est plus haute. Berlioz succeeded in getting his opera Benvenuto Cellini staged at the Royal Academy in 1838, but it closed after just three performances, and was not staged again in France during his lifetime. On trouve des buffets dessertes et des bibliothèques. He was forced to sell his collection of violins to pay his debts. The painting was acquired by the government of Louis Philippe for the Luxembourg Palace, but was soon returned to the painter because of its controversial political message, and was not shown again in public again until 1855, under Louis Napoleon. From 1833 onwards, Delacroix received major commissions to decorate government buildings in Paris. On voit une innovation avec les piétements de sièges et petites tables qui sont souvent munis de roulettes. Ingres was the champion of the French neoclassical style, and in addition the master of the portrait. Il fait suite au style Restauration et sera remplacé par le style Second Empire (dit aussi style Napoléon III). Pour finir notre rapide survol des styles de meubles anciens, le style Louis Philippe (1830-1848) prolonge le style Restauration en gardant ses lignes sobres. He gave just thirty public performances during these years, preferring to give recitals in private salons. Each of them also designed new non-classical buildings in Paris inspired by a variety of different historic styles; Labrouste built the Sainte-Geneviève Library (1844–50); Duc designed the new Palais de Justice and Court of Cassation on the Île-de-la-Cité (1852–68); Vaudroyer designed the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (1838–67), and Duban designed the new buildings of the École des Beaux-Arts. Merovingian Dynasty (428–751) The name of France comes from the Germanic tribe known as the Franks.The Merovingian kings began as chieftains. He earned his living from commissions given by wealthy patrons, including the wife of James Mayer de Rothschild, from publishing his compositions and giving private lessons. Together, these buildings, drawing upon Renaissance, Gothic, Romanesque and other non-classical styles, broke the monopoly of Neoclassical architecture in Paris. The other major restoration projects were Sainte-Chapelle and the Hôtel de Ville, dating to the 17th century; the old buildings which pressed up against the back of the Hôtel de Ville were cleared away; two new wings were added, the interiors were lavishly redecorated, and the ceilings and walls of the large ceremonial salons were painted with murals by Eugène Delacroix. Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Styles de meubles : évolution des styles mobiliers en Franc . Tables were usually round or oval, often mounted on a pedestal, with cut-off or slanting corners. The romance, a song with a simple, tender melody, sentimental words, accompanied on the piano, became the fashion in the Paris salons. Rude also made the romantic Napoleon awakening to immortality in 1845–47. A duchess' irrational behavior toward the governess of her children triggers tragic events that will change her family's lives forever. The Napoleonic spirit emerged triumphant in the 1848 Revolution, and the election of Napoleon III as the first President of France. Ses lignes sont massives et tentent de privilégier le confort au détriment de l'esthétique. A succession of kings continued to embellish the Palace up until the French … Lignes droites et formes épurées, il s'apparente à la déco design avec ses beaux volumes et son ambiance loft. Dominique Riquet. He died in Paris on 4 July 1848, during the French Revolution of 1848. in 1832 Honoré de Balzac conceived the idea of a series of books that would paint a panoramic portrait of "all aspects of society;" eventually called La Comédie Humaine. Les prix affichés correspondent et sont composés pour la plus part de l'ensemble vitrine + buffet + miroir + table + 4 chaises. Bois : les bois chauds et sombres sont à la mode. The novel led to the restoration of the cathedral and other medieval monuments in Paris. Old and authentic Louis-Philippe style mirror - wood frame and painted stucco - on the back: original pointed wood - 1 hanging ring - 1900s - 1920s. Les guéridons ont un pied central qui peut être en bulbe. Pendant cette période, des entreprises à vocation plus industrielle se développent. Alexandre Dumas published The Three Musketeers (1844); Twenty Years After (1845); The Vicomte de Bragelonne (1847); The Count of Monte Cristo (1845–1846); La Reine Margot (1845); La Dame de Monsoreau (1846); and many more novels, in addition to many theatrical versions of his novels for the Paris stage. You can also revel in comfort with their range of innerwear which is crafted from the softest of cotton that is perfect for all day wear. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners. 1993. The July Column was inaugurated on 28 July 1840, on the anniversary of the July Revolution, and dedicated to those killed during the uprising. Trop de couleurs mal associées peuvent vite transformer le lieu en salon trop bariolé . , Tomb of Napoleon, surrounded by statues of Victories, by James Pradier, Odalisque by James Pradier, (1841) (Louvre), Phryne removing her veil by James Pradier (1845) (Louvre), Philopoemen hurt by David d'Angers (1837), La Marseillaise by François Rude, on the Arc de Triomphe (1836), Napoleon Awakening to Immortality by François Rude (1845–47), Parc Noisot, Fixin-les-Dijon. Encyclopédie le des styles d'hier et d'aujourd'hui - 2 - du louis-philippe au contemporain et les styles étrangers | | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle … Son règne est caractérisé par le développement et l'enrichissement rapide de la bourgeoisie manufacturière et financière, l'extrême misère des classes ouvrières, et des révoltes populaires incessantes qui finiront par emporter son régime. Das Palais Royal wurde zum Treffpunkt für die Führer der Mittelklasse-Ansichten, durch die er letztlich auf den Thron gebracht wurde. Ça tombe bien, la tendance est au mélange des genres. At the end of the performance, with Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas in the audience, Paganini bowed down humbly before Berlioz in tribute. Victor Hugo published four volumes of poetry, and in 1831 published Notre-Dame de Paris (The Hunchback of Notre-Dame), which was quickly translated into English and other European languages. 01430 Izenave - 650 € Canapé 3 Places Style Louis XV. We offer a wide range of Scottish clothing, including Scottish, Irish, Modern kilts, Sporran, Jackets & Accessories at our Kilt Shop, Stitched with love and dedication It was the first French decorative style imposed not by royalty, but by the tastes of the growing French upper class. Cet essence de bois est la siganture du STYLE Louis philippe qui represente, pour la plus part, ces collections. The first structure to be restored was the nave of the church of Saint-Germain-des-Prés, the oldest in the city. The southernmost capital city in the Americas, Montevideo is situated on the southern coast of the … Music played an important part in the regime from the very beginning, during the 1830 revolution that overthrew Charles X. He received a commission for an eight-meter long painting for the Luxembourg Palace, titled "The Romans in their decadence". , At the beginning of the 1830s, the Paris police counted 271 wandering street musicians, 220 saltimbanques, 106 players of the barbary organ, and 135 itinerant street singers. Unlike his Bourbon predecessors, he wore business dress, not formal robes, he lived in Paris, and he shunned ceremonies; he carried his own umbrella, and imposed no official styles. 1989.---. L'industrie de l'ameublement se développe et les meubles sont de plus en plus produits en série. The poet Charles Baudelaire, born in Paris, published his first works, essays of art criticism. König der Franzosen Der Weg auf den Thron. They included Paul Delaroche (1797-1856), a classicist in the Ingres tradition, who painted ceiling murals for the redecoration of Louvre in 1831, and for the murals of the hemicycle of the École des Beaux Arts in 1837, which included the sixty-six most famous painters since antiquity. Encyclopédie le des styles d'hier et d'aujourd'hui - 2 - du louis-philippe au contemporain et les styles étrangers on Amazon.com. Une ambiance noble pour des meubles de valeur aux lignes de pur STYLE français. Historian Marjorie Ingle traces the history of this style to the Pan American Union Building by Paul Philippe Cret, ... Maya Architecture and the Creation of a New Style. Furniture became darker and heavier. During the reign of Louis Philippe, forms of furniture changed little from the French Restoration period; comfort became a greater priority. C'est à Neuchâtel que j'ai crée en 2007 mon propre bureau : acdesign. The Palace of Versailles has been listed as a World Heritage Site for 30 years and is one of the greatest achievements in French 17th century art. The famed tenor Adolphe Nourrit, who had starred in the operas of Rossini, went onto the stages of Paris and emotionally sang the Marseillaise, which had been forbidden during the First Empire and the Restoration. Ce libéralisme bourgeois devient vite impopulaire et le roi s'attire l'inimitié de l'ancienne noblesse et le fossé se creuse entre cette classe aisée et le prolétariat. C'est une commode étroite qui se compose généralement de quatre tiroirs et d'un plateau qui se soulève, laissant apparaître un marbre blanc et un miroir. "Monsieur Donizetti has the air to treat us like a conquered country," he wrote, "it is a veritable war of invasion. Agnès Cont é 13 Novembre 2014. The most famous musical exile in Paris was Frédéric Chopin, who arrived in September 1831 at the age of twenty-one, and did not return to Congress Poland because of the crushing of the Polish uprising against Russian rule in October 1831. Berlioz premiered his Symphonie Fantastique there on December 30, 1830; on December 29, 1832, Berlioz presented the Symphony again, along with two new pieces, Lelio and Harold en Italie, which he wrote specially for Paganini to play. He published Eugénie Grandet, his first bestseller, in 1833, followed by Le Père Goriot in 1835, the two-volume Illusions perdues in 1843, Splendeurs et misères des courtisanes in 1847, Le Cousin Pons (1847) and La Cousine Bette (1848). 3.8K likes. In each of the novels, Paris is the setting and a major participant. L'. , Balls, concerts-promenades and the romance, Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, Polish uprising against Russian rule in October 1831, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Louis_Philippe_style&oldid=960887684, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 June 2020, at 12:56. FRENCH LOUIS PHILIPPE STYLE ENFILADE BUFFET. The Voltaire armchair had a high slightly curving back, padded armrests, and short legs. Parmi les créations du style Louis-Philippe on trouve le fauteuil crapaud, le motif « cuisse de grenouille » et le « pied parapluie » : on les trouve dans le piétement des meubles et des sièges. Addressing the needs of the style-conscious man, the brand’s clothing range boasts of a collection of suits, shirts, trousers, T-shirts and accessories that can be bought in-store and online. Je travaille aujourd’hui en Suisse après un passage par la France et les États-Unis. In 1843 he decorated the Church of St. Denis du Saint Sacrement with a large Pietà. The Mayan Revival Style: Art Deco Mayan Fantasy. Under Louis Philippe, the monuments begun by Napoleon, including the Arc de Triomphe were completed. Le bureau en dos d'âne qui avait disparu depuis l'Empire fait son retour. Louis XIII's old hunting pavilion was transformed and extended by his son, Louis XIV, when he installed the Court and government there in 1682. Louis Philippe furniture had the same types and forms as the earlier French Restoration style, but with less decoration; comfort was the primary consideration. Le Vanneur par Jean-François Millet (1848). The repertoire of popular songs ranged from romantic to comic and satirical, to political and revolutionary, especially in the 1840s. On trouve beaucoup de tables « utilitaires ». Other romantic ballets that had their first performances at the Opera were Giselle (1841), Paquita (1846) and Le Corsaire (1856). However, his Martyrdom of Saint-Symphorien in 1834 was very badly received by French critics, who preferred Delacroix, and he departed Paris in disgust to become director of the French Academy in Rome, where he remained until 1841. Sur photo le centre n'est pas monté mais est sur la seconde photo. Il est le prolongement direct du style Restauration dont … We can no longer call them the lyric theaters of Paris, just the lyric theaters of Monsieur Donizetti.". Elisabeth Boucher and Philippe Feinsilber, Elie 17, Zacharie 5 years, Ava 5 months old - The Socialite Family Installed in the Odéon district of Paris, Elisabeth Boucher and Philippe Feinsilber open the doors of their family apartment. Chopin gave his first concert in Paris at the Salle Pleyel on 26 February 1832, and remained in the city for most of the next eighteen years. The movement of romanticism became dominant in French literature. The 17-year-old Jacques Offenbach wrote his first compositions for the dance orchestra at the Café Turc. In the gondola armchairs and chairs, the curved back and arms curved around and enfolded the person sitting. The legs of these tables were often in the shape of an S or of a lyre. Équipez-vous d'unCommode dessus marbre style louis XV en bois de rose. 1850 – 1875 High Victorian 1880 – Moderne: 1896/1897/1903 – 1920 Jugendstil / Österr. Cette industrialisation de l'ébénisterie passe par l'utilisation de machines-outil. Louis-Philippe: 1830 – 1850 Early Victorian: 1850 – 1910 Historismus / Eklektizismus: 1850 – 1910 Altdeutscher Stil: 1852 – 1870 Second Empire (Napoleon III.) Living merisier style louis xv. Capra Press. Moins élégant, il privilégie le confort à l'esthétique. LP- Passion Drives Excellence . Directed by Anatole Litvak. A variety of small tables became popular: writing tables, work tables, and the coiffeuse, or dressing table, equipped with an oval mirror. Les armoires sont plutôt d'apparence massive avec ses plinthes et sa corniche en doucine. Le style Louis-Philippe est animé par un souci de confort et d'économie. He had come to Paris from Grenoble in 1821 to study medicine, which he abandoned for music in 1824, attending the Conservatory in 1826, and won the Prix de Rome for his compositions in 1830. L'écran pupitre fait son apparition. In literature and music, France had a golden age, as the home of Frédéric Chopin, Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, and other major poets and artists. C'est un fauteuil bas sur pieds et profond de siège qui dispose d'un haut dossier cambré. He was largely forgotten after the Louis Philippe period. The leading Italian singers also came regularly to sing at the Théâtre-Italien, including Giovanni Rubini, the creator of the role of Arturo in Bellini's I Puritani, Giulia Grisi, Fanny Persiani, Henriette Sontag and Giuditta Pasta, who created the role of Norma in Bellini's opera. This illustrated popular movement to restore the reputation of Napoleon and the revolutionary spirit, which had been suppressed under the Restoration, but which reappeared with the return of the ashes of Napoleon to France under Louis Philippe. On voit aussi la multiplication des meubles pratique (commode-toilette, barbière…). *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. , The Théâtre-Italien completed the grand trio of Paris opera houses. Il imite beaucoup de styles anciens (styles Renaissance, Gothique, Louis XIII ou encore rocaille) ; vers 1840, le goût pour les pastiches annonce le style Second Empire et l'éclectisme tout comme, en Angleterre, le style victorien. Choose from a variety of dining and seating options with chairs, tables, matching sets, and more for a perfect patio. With a collection of shirts, … The Concert Society of the Paris Conservatory was founded in 1828, especially to play the symphonies of Beethoven – one at each performance, along with works by Mozart, Hayden and Handel. Paris was the musical capital of Europe between 1830 and 1848. In February, the government handed over management of the theater to a gifted entrepreneur, Doctor Véron, who had become wealthy selling medicinal ointments. GALA.de - Ihr Blick in die Welt der Stars ☆ Exklusive News, Bilder und Videos zu VIPs und Promis sowie die Trends aus Fashion, Beauty und Lifestyle. Among the great ballerinas to grace the stage of the Opéra during this time were Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Carolina Rosati, Fanny Elssler, Lucile Grahn, and Fanny Cerrito. living en merisier style Louis XV en 3 partie bas, haut et centre. Scribe left behind the grand mythological themes of earlier French opera, and wrote stories from a variety of historical periods which, with a mixture of strong emotion, humor and romanticism, exactly suited the taste of Parisian audiences. Although the location existed for centuries before the sovereign, Louis XIV developed a genuine liking for Versailles early on, and decided to extend it beyond the chateau that had grown out of the hunting lodge of brick and stone first built by his father. The leading figure of the restoration movement was Prosper Mérimée, named by Louis-Philippe as the Inspector-General of Historic Monuments. In 1836, he made an unfortunate investment in a Paris casino, and went bankrupt. Entdecken Sie die Kollektionen und finden Sie ein Geschäft. Total dimensions: Height: 37 cm - 14.56 - width: 54.3 cm - 21.37 - thickness approximately 4 cm - 1.58 - weight: 2920 gr - … The oldest known was Chlodio. Gustave Flaubert wrote of him: "This is a great artist, a true Greek, the most antique of all the moderns; a man who is distracted by nothing, not by politics, nor socialism, and who, like a true workman, sleeves rolled up, is there to do his task morning til night with the will to do well and the love of his art." La commode-toilette est dédiée à la toilette. Comment faire en sorte que différents univers se côtoient sans dénoter ? En effet, le métal qui s… In Rome he painted the first of his Odalisque paintings, scenes of slaves in Turkish baths. Hugo spoke out against the death penalty and for freedom of speech. La chaise type du style Louis-Philippe se caractérise par une armature moulurée, un dossier cintré et ajouré, des pieds antérieurs (avant) tournés en balustre ou cambrés et des supérieurs (arrière) en sabre. La commode-toilette fait son apparition. François-René de Chateaubriand refused to swear allegiance to Louis-Philippe, and instead secluded himself in his apartment at 120 Rue du Bac and wrote his most famous work, Mémoires d'outre-tombe, which was not published until after his death. The Champs-Élysées was redeveloped in the 1830s with public gardens at either end, and became a popular place for Parisians to promenade. Stendhal published his first major novel, Le Rouge et le Noir, in 1830, and his second, La Chartreuse de Parme, in 1839. Wide selection of colors, styles, materials, designs and features. , French composers including Hector Berlioz struggled in vain against the tide of Italian operas. The reign of Louis-Philippe also saw the beginning of a movement to preserve and restore some of the earliest landmarks of Paris, inspired in large part by Victor Hugo's hugely successful novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame (Notre-Dame de Paris), published in 1831. " The violinist Niccolò Paganini was a frequent visitor and performer in Paris. University of New Mexico Press. Ingle, Marjorie I. Si certains matériaux sont propres à certains styles, ils ont le chic pour parfaitement s'associer. LOUIS VUITTON Offizielle Webseite Deutschland - Erfahren Sie alles über die Welt von Louis Vuitton - dessen Geschichte, Werte und Savoir Faire. En architecture, Viollet-le-Duc pose les bases de l'architecture moderne. Il y a toujours des tables à jeu (parfois en demi-lune). 205-323-6033 Shop 404-831-6603 Cell. The reign of Louis Philippe was a golden age for French literature; many of France's most famous writers published major works. Mélanger les époques et les styles. , The Opéra-Comique also enjoyed great success, largely due to the talents of the scenarist Eugène Scribe, who wrote ninety works for the theater, put to music by forty different composers, including Daniel Auber, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Fromental Halévy (La Juive (1835)), Cherubini, Donizetti, Gounod and Verdi (for whom he wrote Les vêpres siciliennes). The most prominent sculptor of the Louis Philippe style was the Swiss-born James Pradier, who made one of the most important monumental works of the period, a group of statues of The Victories that surround the tomb of Napoleon Bonaparte. In their repertoire, the ballet played a very small part, the costumes and sets were not remarkable, and the number of works was small; only a dozen new operas were staged between 1825 and 1870; but they included several famous works of Bel Canto opera, including I Puritani by Bellini and Marino Faliero and Don Pasquale by Donizetti. The Commission of Public Monument was created in 1837, and in 1842, Mérimée began compiling the first official list of classified historical monuments, now known as the Base Mérimée. and pleasure gardens where outdoor concerts and balls were held. Le dossier ajouré peut prendre plusieurs formes (croisillons, barres transversales ou « à la cathédrale »). Thereafter it entered the collection of the Louvre.. : Secession / Wiener Werkstätte (nach 1914 vom Expressionismus beeinflusst) 1895/1900 Art Nouveau / Style Métro / Ecole de … La commode est de forme rectangulaire, elle possède de quatre à cinq tiroirs dont l'un est dissimulé derrière la moulure de type doucine situé sous le plateau du dessus généralement en marbre. Il sera même surnommé le « Roi Bourgeois ». ANTIQUE FRENCH LOUIS PHILIPPE BUFFET DEUX CORPS FRENCH ANTIQUE LOUIS PHILIPPE BUFFET D'APPUI. After the fire at the Salle Favart, it moved briefly to the Odéon Theater and then permanently to the Salle Ventadour. The reign of Louis XIV 1638 - 1715. #Invest4Future , The École des beaux-arts by François Debret (1819–32) then Félix Duban (1832–70), The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers by Léon Vaudoyer (1838–67), The Sainte-Geneviève Library by Henri Labrouste (1844–50), During the same period, a small revolution was taking place at the École des Beaux-Arts, led by four young architects; Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had first studied Roman and Greek architecture at the Villa Medici in Rome, then in the 1820s began the systematic study of other historic architectural styles including French architecture of the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
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